The central Mongolian territory consists of Arkhangai, Ovorkhangai, Bayankhongor, Bulgan, and Tov provinces that are located around the great Khangai mountain range. The nature of green hills, forested mountains, pristine lakes, splendid volcanoes, fresh rivers, vast steppes and sand dunes make it one of the most beautiful parts of Mongolia. Species such as deer, roe deer, musk deer, wolves, foxes, vultures, eagles, hawks, buzzards, falcons, wild Takhi horses, marmots, lynxes, gazelles inhabit in this area.
The central Mongolian forests feature Siberian larches, pines, and birches as well as several wild fruits like blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, black currant, lingonberry, seabucktorn etc.
The historic Orkhon valley, a World UNESCO Heritage Site, is located in the heart of central Mongolia. A number of archaeological discoveries prove that it was not only where the ancient capital of Mongolian empire, Kharkhorin, existed but also was a home to many nomadic tribes dating back to 60,000 years ago(earliest settlement recorded).
The west Mongolian territory consists of Bayan-Ulgii, Khovd, Uvs, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai, Bayankhongor provinces that are located around the Altai and Khangai mountain ranges. West Mongolia is known for its sky high snow capped mountain ranges, endangered species, pristine lakes, diverse ethnic groups, and falconry traditions. The highest peak of Mongolia, Khuiten is located 4374 meters above sea level in the Altai Tavan Bogd national park. Species such as Argali (wild sheep), Ibex (wild goat) , wild horses (Khulan and Takhi), antelopes, wolves , falcons, and snow leopards inhabit in this area.
Mongolia has over 20 distinct ethnic groups, and most of them dwell in the west region such as the Kazakh, Zakhchin, Durvud, Bayad, Uzemchin, and Uriankhai people. The Kazakh tribe has well kept their 6000 year old tradition of domesticating eagles for hunting. The Golden Eagle Festival is held annually in the first week of October near Ulgii town, while the Spring Eagle Festival is held annually in the first week of March near Ulaanbaatar.
The south Mongolian territory consists of Dund-Govi, Umnu-Govi, Dorno-Govi provinces. It is also known as the Gobi desert. Many people think the Gobi is merely a plain desert, but there is so much more!
Although the majority of the Gobi is massive steppe and sand dunes, it also features ice glacier, granite rock mountains, red sandstone cliffs, colorful clay scarps, and oasis. The climate is dry and hot between plus 25-35C in summer, and cold around minus 25-35C in winter. It could be the only desert in the world where it snows so much. Number of dinosaur fossils were found at Bayanzag cliffs, Khermen Tsav canyon in Umnu-Govi province. Species such as Mongolian wild ass (Khulan), antelopes, Argali (wild sheep), Ibex (wild goat), wolves , Lammergeier vultures, falcons, the Gobi bear-Mazaalai and snow leopards inhabit in this area.
The north Mongolian territory consists of Khuvsgul, and part of Bulgan, Selenge, Darkhan, Orkhon provinces. The main cities in the north are Murun, Darkhan, and Erdenet. Plenty of rainfall and rich soil makes it an important agricultural zone especially for grain and vegetable field. North Mongolia is famous for its crystal clear lake -Khuvsgul and the Tsaatan tribe who feed off of reindeer. Khuvsgul is the second biggest (2760sq.km) and the deepest (262m) lake in Mongolia. The Tsaatan people live in tepees, and move several times a month searching for good pastoral for the reindeer. There are about 1500-1800 domesticated reindeer in Mongolia.
The climate is between 25-30C in summer, and cold around minus 25-45C in winter. Species such as Mongolian Taimen (the biggest fish in Mongolia), deer, roe deer, musk deer, moose, wolf, vulture, falcon, wild boar inhabit in this area.
The east Mongolian territory consists of Khentii, Sukhbaatar, Dornod provinces.
This part of Mongolia is known as the home of Chingis Khaan and of other good Mongolian men like Robin hood who would murder the corrupted officials and give back to the community. It is full of historic sites such as Khukh nuur where Chingis khan was entitled as the king of Mongolia, Deluun Boldog where Chingis Khan was born. East Mongolia features endless steppe and forested mountains of Khan-Khentii range.
The fastest horse breeds are believed to be from the east. Thus, it is common for the nomads to buy stallions or mares from here to strengthen their own herd of horses.